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  • What is a Bibliography?
    • A bibliography is a list of all sources you consulted for a research project, including ones that you read as part of the research project but did not use within the paper. For this reason, a bibliography is usually longer than a Works Cited list.
    • In some courses, you may be asked to submit a tentative bibliography with a thesis statement before Reading Week. This bibliography does not need to be the final list of what you read or what you use in your paper; it is to show the professor that you have seriously thought about your topic and researched which sources might be useful. If you do not end up reading all of the sources, that is fine, because the professor will see which ones you actually use in your Works Cited page.
  • What is Works Cited?
    • Works Cited is a list of all sources that you cited within your paper.
    • Works Cited is a page or more than one page placed after the last page of your paper.
    • Usually, the professor wants a Works Cited list at the end of your finalized research paper rather than a complete bibliography of everything you read but did not use. However, many Americans use the word “Bibliography” interchangeably with the term “Works Cited” when they speak of the “Works Cited” citations-only list, so if you are unsure which of the two is required, ask your professor. Americans do not say “Works Cited” when they speak of the complete list of all materials that you read including the ones you did not use.
  • Format
    • Every source that informs your paper must be cited and, in your Works Cited page, each of those citations must be listed in a format that differs from the citation itself. All sources referenced include any foreign language sources, live performances, personal e-mail correspondence, unpublished material, etc. You can find the correct format for each type of source in A Manual for Writers of 
    • Research Papers, Theses, and Dissertation.
    • Bibliography and Works Cited formats are identical, so if you turn in a bibliography prior to your finished paper and then turn in a Works Cited in your finished paper, you can simply edit your earlier bibliography to create the Works Cited.
    • Separate each source by a blank line.
When a particular author is the author of more than one source, use ________. instead of the author’s name for subsequent sources (8 underlined spaces + 1 period). If you use Zotero or EndNote, it will generate this for you but might look different, such as ---. Do not worry; you should not be graded down for that difference.

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